Cross River, Kaduna, Kano, Kwara, Lagos and Rivers States were created on May 27 1967 by General Yakubu Gowon and General Murtala Mohammed.
Cross River State (The People’s Paradise)
Cross River is a state in eastern Nigeria, in its South-South Geopolitical Zone, bordering Cameroon to the east. Its capital is Calabar, and name derived from the Cross River (Oyono), which passes through the state. Boki, Ejagham and Efik are major languages of this state. Cross River State is a coastal state in South-South Nigeria, named after the Cross River, which passes through the state. Located in the Niger Delta, Cross River State occupies 20,156km square. It shares boundaries with Benue State to the north, Ebonyi and Abia States to the west, to the east by Cameroon Republic and to the south by Akwa-Ibom and the Atlantic Ocean.
The South-South State was created on May 27, 1967 from the former Eastern Region, Nigeria by the General Yakubu Gowon regime. Its name was changed to Cross River State in the 1976 state. Creation exercise by the then General Murtala Mohammed regime from South Eastern State. The present day Akwa Ibom State was excised from it in the state creation exercise of September 1987 by the then regime of General Ibrahim Babangida. Its capital is Calabar. Its major towns are Akamkpa, Biase, Calabar South, Ikom, Obubra, Odukpani, Ogoja, Ugep, Obudu, Obanliku, Akpabuyo, Ofutop, Iso-bendghe, Danare and Boji The state has been previously governed by many governors and administrators including Udoakaha J. Esuene, Paul Omu, Tunde Elegbede, Clement Isong, Donald Etiebet, Daniel Archibong, Ibim, Princewill, Ernest Atta, Clement Ebri, Ibrahim Kefas, Gregory Agboneni, Umar Faoruk Ahmed, Christopher Osondu, Donald Duke and Liyel Imoke. The Current Governor is Ben Ayade, who came into power on the 29th of May, 2015.
The State is composed of three major ethnic groups: the Efik, the Ejagham, and the Bekwarra. The Efik language is widely spoken in Cross River State, and as far as Arochukwu in neighboring Abia State. The Boki language is also widely spoken in Cross River State; from Ikom, Obubura, Ojoga, Obudu, and Etung local government councils, to as far away as Cameroon. The Efik-speaking people live mainly in the Southern senetorial districts of Cross River, or as it is commonly referred to, the Greater Calabar district, which includes Calabar Municipality, Calabar South, Bakassi, Biase, Akpabuyo, Odukpani, and Akamkpa LGAs. There is also the Qua community in Calabar, which speaks Ejagham. The main Ejagham group occupies mostly the Greater Calabar areas of Calabar Municipality, Odukpani, Biase and Akampkpa sections of Cross River State.
There are also the Yakurr/Agoi/Bahumono ethnic groups in Yakurr and Abi LGA, while the Mbembe are predominantly found in Obubra LGA. Further up the core northern part of the state are several sub-dialectical groups, among which are Etung, Olulumo, Ofutop, Nkim/Nkum, Abanajum, Nseke and Boki in both Ikom, Etung and Boki LGAs. Also, the Yala/Yache,Igede, Ukelle, Ekajuka, Mbube, Bette, Bekwarra and Utugwanga people are found in Ogoja, Yala, Obudu and Obanliku LGA’s.
The Yala are a subgroup of the Idoma nation, part of the Yala LGA’s subgroups are the Igede speaking people believed to have migrated from the Oju part of Benue State. Cross River State epitomises the nation’s linguistic and cultural plurality and it is important to note that, in spite of the diversity of dialects, all the indigenous languages in the state have common linguistic roots as Niger–Congo languages.
Finally, the state boasts of being the venue for the largest carnival in Africa.
Kaduna State (Centre of Learning)
Kaduna, usually referred to as Kaduna State to distinguish it from the city of Kaduna, is a state in Northwest Nigeria. Its capital is Kaduna. The state is located at the Northern part of Nigeria’s High Plains. The vegetation cover is Sudan Savannah type, characterized by scattered short trees, shrubs and grasses. Soil type is mostly loamy to sandy type. Substantial amount of clay is found also.
The word ‘Kaduna’ is said to be a corruption of a Gbagyi word/name for a river. Another version of the etymology of the name is a narrative linked to the Hausa word for crocodile – but this is contested by the Gbagyi people known to have lived in the area for centuries. It is therefore indicative that the name, Kaduna, was taken-up by Lord Frederick Lugard and his colonial colleagues when they moved the capital of the then Northern Region from Zungeru to Kaduna in 1916. This move of the colonial office to Kaduna started 1912-1918/20 with the initial effort having been made in 1902 from Jebba to Zungeru.
At the start of British colonial rule in northern Nigeria the people groups who live in the area became ‘Northern Nigerians’- a construct which continues even till date. By 1967 these people groups again were carved into ‘North Central State’ and this was the case until 1975 that ‘Kaduna State’ was formerly created by the then military leader, Gen. Murtala Mohammed, with all distinct identities amalgamated into one state without a referendum. The state hence is the successor of the old Northern Region of Nigeria, which had its capital at Kaduna which is now the state capital to about 6.3 million people.
It was from the old Northern Region that in the year 1967 gave birth to six states in the north, leaving Kaduna as the capital of North-Central State, whose name was changed to Kaduna State in 1976. Meanwhile, Kaduna was further divided in 1987, creating Katsina State. Under the governance of Kaduna is the ancient city of Zaria, Kafanchan, and Nok, the area one of Africa’s earliest civilization is recorded to have been excavated. The most intriguing aspect of this area is that the colonial construction and its post-colonial successor call ‘Nigeria’ hardly documented the history or the method of how Kaduna state’s people groups encompassed in these constructs define and identify themselves as such the people groups who populate the area have lived in near oblivion or obscurity as they often are thought of as Hausa people.
The current governor of Kaduna state is Mallam Nasir el-Rufa’i.
Kano State (Centre of Commerce)
Kano State is a state located in Northern Nigeria. Created on May 27, 1967 from part of the Northern Region, Kano state borders Katsina State to the north-west, Jigawa State to the north-east, Bauchi State to the south-east and Kaduna State to the south-west. The capital of Kano State is Kano.
The state originally included Jigawa State which was made a separate state in 1991. Kano State is the second largest industrial center after Lagos State in Nigeria and the largest in Northern Nigeria with textile, tanning, footwear, cosmetics, plastics, enamelware, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, furniture and other industries. Others include agricultural implements, soft drinks, food and beverages, dairy products, vegetable oil, animal feeds etc. Commercial activities in Kano first developed with the establishment of the Kurmi market by the Emir of Kano Muhammadu Rumfa in the 16th Century CE. Subsequent leaders made contributions to the emergence of Kano as a leading commercial center in Sudanic Africa. During the Caliphate period in the 19th century the Emirs Ibrahim Dado and Sulaimanu encouraged traders to move from Katsina, capitalising on raids from the Hausa Sultanate of Maradi. The Jihad leaders of the Caliphate encouraged Kola nut trade and Kano was the greatest beneficiary with an annual turnover of about $30 million. Craft industries also evolved in the pre-colonial period contributing to the prosperity of the province.
Subsistence and commercial agriculture is mostly practiced in the outlying districts of the state. Some of the food crops cultivated are millet, cowpeas, sorghum, maize and rice for local consumption while groundnuts and cotton are produced for export and industrial purposes. During the colonial period and several years after the country’s independence, the groundnuts produced in the state constituted one of the major sources revenue of the country. Kano State is a major producer of hides and skins, sesame, soybean, cotton, garlic, gum arabic and chili pepper.
Kwara State (State of Harmony)
Kwara (Yoruba: Ìpínlẹ̀ Kwárà) is a state in Western Nigeria. Its capital is Ilorin. Kwara is located within the North Central geopolitical zone, commonly referred to as the Middle Belt. The primary ethnic group is Yoruba (Afonja), with significant Nupe, Bariba, and Fulani minorities.
Kwara State was created on 27 May 1967, when the Federal Military Government of General Yakubu Gowon broke the four regions that then constituted the Federation of Nigeria into 12 states. At its creation, the state was made up of the former Ilorin and Kabba provinces of the then Northern Region and was initially named the West Central State but later changed to “Kwara”, a local name for the River Niger.
Kwara State has since 1976 reduced considerably in size as a result of further state creation exercises in Nigeria. On 13 February 1976, the Idah/Dekina part of the state was carved out and merged with a part of the then Benue/Plateau State to form Benue State. On 27 August 1991, five local government areas, namely Oyi, Yagba, Okene, Okehi and Kogi were also excised to form part of the new Kogi State, while a sixth, Borgu Local Government Area, was merged with Niger State. Agriculture is the main source of the economy and the principal cash crops are: cotton, cocoa, coffee, Kolanut, tobacco, beniseed and palm produce. Mineral resources in the state are Gold, limestone, marble, feldspar, clay, kaolin, quartz and granite rocks. Industries in the state include Dangote Flour Mill, Lubcon Lubricant Company, Kam Industries Nigeria Ltd, Tuyil Pharmacy Nig Ltd, Padson Industries NiG Ltd, Kwara Breweries, Ijagbo, Global Soap and Detergent Industry, United Match Company, Tate and Lyle Company, Resinoplast Plastic Industry, Phamatech Nigeria Limited, Kwara Textile and Kwara Furniture Company all in Ilorin.
Others are Paper Manufacturing Industry, Jebba, Okin Foam and Okin Biscuits, Offa, Kay Plastic, Ganmo and Kwara Paper Converters Limited, Erin-ile. Others are Sugar Producing Company, Bacita, Kwara animal Feed Mall, Ilorin and the Agricultural Products Company. Notable people from Kwara State: Abubakar Olusola Saraki, Abdulfatah Ahmed, Adamu Atta, Adebayo Salami, Ahmed Mohammed Inuwa, Bukola Saraki, Cornelius Adebayo, David Bamigboye, David Oyedepo, Gbemisola Ruqayyah Saraki, Ibrahim Gambari, Joseph Ayo Babalola, Kemi Adesoye, Kunle Afolayan, Femi Adebayo, Lágbájá, Lai Mohammed, Mohammed Lawal, Mohammed Shaaba Lafiagi, Rashidi Yekini, Salaudeen Latinwo, Salihu Modibbo Alfa Belgore, Simon Ajibola, Theophilus Bamigboye, Tunde Adebimpe, Tunde Idiagbon, Abdulkareem Adisa, Wasiu Alabi Pasuma, Ola Ibrahim.
Lagos State (Centre of Excellence)
Lagos, sometimes referred to as Lagos State to distinguish it from Lagos Metropolitan Area, is a state located in the south-western geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The smallest in area of Nigeria’s 36 states. Lagos State is arguably the most economically important state of the country, containing Lagos, the nation’s largest urban area. It is a major financial centre and would be the fifth largest economy in Africa, if it were a country. The actual population total is disputed between the official Nigerian Census of 2006, and a much higher figure claimed by the Lagos State Government. Lagos State is located in the south-western part of the Nigerian Federation. On the North and East it is bounded by Ogun State. In the West it shares boundaries with the Republic of Benin. Behind its southern borders lies the Atlantic Ocean.
22% of its 3,577 km square are lagoons and creeks. Before the Portuguese name of Lagos had been adopted, Lagos’ initial name was Eko which referred mainly to the Island. The first to settle in Eko were the Aworis. The Awori hunters and fishermen had originally come from Ile-Ife to the coast. The name Eko comes either from the Yoruba “Oko” (cassava farm) or “Eko” (war camp). Over 650 years ago, the Oba of Benin sent warriors to Eko who were received in a welcoming manner by the residing Awori fishermen. The Benin Prince, Ado, who led the war party, was asked to become their leader. From that point on, Eko belong Yoruba.
Lagos State was created on 27 May 1967 according to the State Creation and Transitional Provisions Decree No. 14 of 1967, which restructured Nigeria into a Federation of 12 states. Before the issuance of this Decree, Lagos city, which was the country’s capital had been administered directly by the Federal Government through the Federal Ministry of Lagos Affairs. However, Ikeja, Agege, Mushin, Ikorodu, Epe and Badagry were administered by the then Western Region Government. Lagos, the city, along with these other towns were captured to create the state of Lagos, with the State becoming fully recognized as a semi-autonomous administrative division on 11 April 1968. Lagos served the dual role of being the State and Federal Capital until 1976, when the capital of the State was moved to Ikeja. After the full establishment of the Federal Capital Territory, the seat of the Federal Government was also formally relocated to Abuja on 12 December 1991. Nevertheless, Lagos still remains the financial centre of the country, and also grew to become the most populous city in the state and the country.
Notable people: Hakeem Olajuwon, Babatunde Olatunji, Herbert Macauley, Henry Rawlingson Carr, Mobolaji Johnson, Bola Ahmed Tinubu, Babatunde Raji Fashola, Fela Kuti, Bruce Onobrakpeya, Jimi Agbaje, Femi Ojo Ade, Funsho Williams, Henry Ajomale, Ayodele Awojobi, Bode George, Akinwunmi Ambode, Oluremi Tinubu, Musiliu Obanikoro, Rilwan Akiolu, Olubankole Wellington, Wole Soyinka, Femi Gbajabiamila e.t.c
Rivers State (Treasure Base of the Nation)
Rivers State, also known simply as Rivers, is one of the 36 states of Nigeria. According to census data released in 2006, the state has a population of 5,185,400, making it the sixth-most populous state in the country. Its capital and largest city, Port Harcourt, is economically significant as the centre of Nigeria’s oil industry. Rivers State is bounded on the South by the Atlantic Ocean, to the North by Imo, Abia and Anambra States, to the East by Akwa Ibom State and to the West by Bayelsa and Delta states. It is home to many indigenous ethnic groups: Ikwerre, Ibani, Opobo, Eleme, Okrika, and Kalabari, Etche, Ogba, Ogoni, Engenni, Obolo and others. The people from Rivers State are known as “Riverians”.
The inland part of the state consists of tropical rainforest; towards the coast the typical Niger Delta environment features many mangrove swamps. Rivers State, named after the many rivers that border its territory, was part of the Oil Rivers Protectorate from 1885 till 1893, when it became part of the Niger Coast Protectorate. In 1900 the region was merged with the chartered territories of the Royal Niger Company to form the colony of Southern Nigeria. The state was formed in 1967 with the split of the Eastern Region of Nigeria. Until 1996 the state contained the area now known as Bayelsa State. In the early days of the colonial period, several protection treaties were signed between various indigenous communities and the British colonial government. Between 1941 and 1952, agitation for the creation of Rivers province began with the formation of the Ijo Rivers People’s League. By 1953, the Council of Rivers Chiefs was birthed as a replacement body for the League, the same year, another organisation, the Calabar Ogoja Rivers (COR) State Movement became existent.
The Council of Rivers Chiefs was later renamed in 1954 to Rivers Chiefs and Peoples’ Congress and in 1956, the organisation became known as the Rivers Chiefs Peoples Conference. Until 1958, hopes of an independent state resonated with the region, and lingered consistently in the minds of its natives. During the constitutional conference that year, the country’s nationhood was affirmed while an agreement was reached on some measures to mitigate the fears of the ethnic minorities in the area. Around this time, the COR State Movement had broken away to press their own case. Thereafter, the British launched a commission led by Sir Henry Willink to look into the misgivings of these autochthons. The Willink Commission initiated the conception of the Niger Delta Development Board (NDDB). The purpose was to tackle the problems of underdevelopment, however, this failed to rise to the expectations of the masses. After much discontent, some of the people attempted to take the extralegal route to achieve their goals. In February 1966, Isaac Boro, Sam Owonaro and Nottingham Dick alongside their supporters proclaimed a “Delta Peoples Republic”. The rebellion was immediately crushed by the Federal and the old Eastern Nigeria government. On 27 May 1967, under the administration of General Yakubu Gowon, decree No. 14 was issued, allowing the creation of Rivers State. From then on, complaints about political marginalisation, environmental degradation and economic pauperisation remained among the Ijaw groups, such that a separate Bayelsa State was carved out of Rivers State by the military government during 1996. The state is famous for its vast reserves of crude oil and natural gas. It was perhaps the richest and most important section of the African zone of the British Empire. Rivers State has two major oil refineries, two major seaports, airports, and various industrial estates spread across the land. More than 60% of the country’s output of crude oil is produced in the state. Other natural resources found within its boundaries are silica sand, glass sand and clay. Prior to the discovery of oil in commercial quantity in 1951, Agriculture was the primary occupation of the people of Rivers State. Around 19th century when the industrial revolution reached its peak in England, the area was then referred to as Oil Rivers Protectorate, this was due to its abundant palm oil and kernel which basically constituted the main revenue source of the country. In a sample survey carried out by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, about 40% of the rural inhabitants were committed to farming in 1983. Rivers State is one of the leading states in the production of yam, cassava, cocoyam, maize, rice and beans. About 39% (760,000 hectares) of the state’s total land mass, particularly in the upland area, is suitable for cultivation. Major cash crops produced are oil palm products, rubber, coconut, raffia palm and jute. Other crops grown for food include, vegetables, melon, pineapples, mango, pepper, banana and plantain. The fishing industry is an important sector in Rivers State. Besides being lucrative, fishing is also a favorite past time activity. There are approximately 270 species of fish existing; with many artisanal fishermen in the riverine areas. The state provides valuable seafoods such as crabs, oysters, shrimps and sea snails among others. Vertebrates like birds, mammals and reptiles are also found in the region.
Good People, Great Nation!
God bless Nigerians!!!
God bless the Federal Republic of Nigeria!!!